Commissioned educational and scientific works as a freelance activity: socio-economic aspects

Economic Annals-ХХI: Volume 186, Issue 11-12, Pages: 152-160

Citation information:
Grimov, O. (2020). Commissioned educational and scientific works as a freelance activity: socio-economic aspects. Economic Annals-XXI, 186(11-12), 152-160. doi: https://doi.org/10.21003/ea.V186-17


Oleg Grimov
PhD (Sociology),
Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology,
Faculty of Economics and Management,
Southwest State University
94, 50 Let Oktyabrya Str., Kursk, 305040, Russian Federation
grimoleg@yandex.ru
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6883-9898

Commissioned educational and scientific works as a freelance activity: socio-economic aspects

Abstract. Nowadays, a large segment of shadow economy is related to educational and scientific works to order. It is characterized by significant demand. Special types of social and economic entities, their practices and interactions are formed in the structure of this market. However, meaningful characteristics of such employment are virtually unexplored. It can be noted that the place of this employment in the general context of freelance is not sufficiently studied. Its professional structure, its specifics and financial and economic characteristics, as well as social values and attitudes of performers of commissioned works, are not sufficiently studied. This paper is aimed at filling these gaps.

The purpose of the paper is a socio-economic analysis of employment in preparing commissioned educational and scientific works. The results of the author’s sociological study (an expert survey of work performers, N = 48), as well as statistical and secondary sociological data are given.

Social and economic parameters of preparing commissioned educational and scientific works are considered. An analysis of economic characteristics of commissioned educational and scientific works was carried out; a typology of motivations of this employment is given.

The author concludes that preparation of commissioned works has social and economic attractiveness for performers in the general context of informal employment.

Mechanisms for professionalization and continuation of this activity are being formed, which has an impact on market and educational institutions.

Keywords: Service Market for Execution of Commissioned Educational and Scientific Works; Ghost-writers; Commissioned Work Factory; Academic Fraud; Freelance

JEL Classification: J21; J23; J40; J44; O17

Acknowledgements and Funding: The research is financed by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 19-18-00504 «Sociotechnical environment of digital reality: ontological matrices, ethical and axiological regulative structures, roadmaps, and information support for management decision-making».

Contribution: The author contributed personally to this work.

Data Availability Statement: The dataset is available from the author upon request.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21003/ea.V186-17

References

  1. Ain. (2020, February 06). How much freelancers earn and where they work – Payoneer research.
    https://ain.ua/2020/02/06/otchet-payoneer-o-frilanserax (in Russ.)
  2. Amigud, A., & Lancaster, T. (2020). I will pay someone to do my assignment: an analysis of market demand for contract cheating services on twitter. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(4), 541-553.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1670780
  3. Aseeva, I., & Budanov, V. (2019, November 13-14). Some issues of ethical regulation of «digital» society. 34th International business information management association conference, Madrid, Spain, 9679-9683.
  4. Awdry, R., & Newton, P. M. (2019). Staff views on commercial contract cheating in higher education: a survey study in Australia and the UK. Higher Education, 78, 593-610.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00360-0
  5. Birks, M., Mills, J., Allen, S., & Tee, S. (2020). Managing the mutations: academic misconduct in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 16(6).
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-020-00055-5
  6. Boev, E., & Kamensky, E. (2015). An innovation civilization in the context of the anthroposphere crisis of the technogenic society. Asian Social Science, 11(4), 328-335.
    https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v11n4p328
  7. Brimble, M., & Stevenson-Clarke, P. (2005). Perceptions of the Prevalence and Seriousness of Academic Dishonesty in Australian Universities. Australian Educational Researcher, 32, 19-44.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03216825
  8. Byrne, J. A., & Christopher, J. (2020). Digital magic, or the dark arts of the 21st century – how can journals and peer reviewers detect manuscripts and publications from paper mills? FEBS Letters, 594(4), 583-589.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13747
  9. Consultant. (2020). Average monthly wage in the general for the Russian Federation.
    http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_326052 (in Russ.)
  10. Curtis, G. J., & Clare, J. (2017). How prevalent is contract cheating and to what extent are students repeat offenders? Journal of Academic Ethics, 15, 115-124. 
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-017-9278-x
  11. Eaton, S. E. (2019, February 15). The ethics of outsourcing: contract cheating in medicine and health sciences. Orthopaedic Surgery Citywide Rounds, Calgary, Canada.
    http://hdl.handle.net/1880/110102
  12. Foltýnek, T., & Králíková, V. (2018). Analysis of the contract cheating market in Czechia. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 14(4).
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-018-0027-8
  13. Ison, D. C. (2020). Detection of online contract cheating through stylometry: a pilot study. Online Learning, 24(2), 142-165.
    https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v24i2.2096
  14. Johnson, C., & Davies, R. (2020). Using digital forensic techniques to identify contract cheating: a case study. Journal of Academic Ethics, 18, 105-113.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-019-09358-w
  15. Kalimullin, T. (2006). The Russian market of research project’s service. Preprint WP4/2006/02, HSE, Moscow (in Russ.).
  16. Lancaster, T. (2019). Buy an essay – essay mills and contract cheating pricing (infographic). Thomas Lancaster. Blog Posts from Academic Integrity Expert and Higher Education Professional.
    http://thomaslancaster.co.uk/blog/buy-an-essay-essay-mills-and-contract-cheating-pricing
  17. Lancaster, T. (2020). Academic discipline integration by contract cheating services and essay mills. Journal of Academic Ethics, 18, 115-127.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-019-09357-x
  18. Lancaster, T. (2020). Commercial contract cheating provision through micro-outsourcing web sites. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 16(4).
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-020-00053-7
  19. Lancaster, T., & Clarke, R. (2016). Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work. In Bretag T. (Ed.). Handbook of Academic Integrity. Springer, Singapore.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-098-8_17
  20. Matviychuk-Soskina, N. (2016). Scholarly communications in economics: Eastern European challenges. Perspectives, 2, 85-92.
    http://perspectives-ism.eu/contents/22016-2/22016-085-matviychuk
  21. Medway, D., Roper, S., & Gillooly, L. (2018). Contract cheating in UK higher education: a covert investigation of essay mills. British Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 393-418.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3335
  22. Podgorny, B. (2014). Stock market’s private investor about privatization. Sociological Studies, 1, 40-46 (in Russ.).
  23. Prostudenta. (2019). Top 13 sites by reviews: where is it better to order or buy a thesis.
    https://prostudenta.ru/post-591.html (in Russ.)
  24. Olenkova, A. (2019, March 15). Average income of freelancers. Rb.
    https://rb.ru/news/dohod-frilanserov/#:~:text=Биржа%20фриланса%20FL.ru%20провела,рассказали%20в%20пресс-службе%20компании (in Russ.)
  25. Ria.ru. (2020). The median salary in Russia was 35 thousand rubles.
    https://ria.ru/20200803/1575284229.html#:~:text=Медианная%20зарплата%20в%20России%20составила,-%20РИА%20Новости%2C%2003.08.2020 (in Russ.)
  26. Shala, S., Hyseni-Spahiu, M., & Selimaj, A. (2020). Addressing contract cheating in Kosovo and international practices. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 16(11).
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-020-00061-7
  27. Sivasubramaniam, S., Kostelidou, K., & Ramachandran, S. (2016). A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 12(1).
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9
  28. Wallace, M., & Newton, P. (2014). Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating. Educational Studies, 40(2), 233-236.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2014.889597